Conventional Reports in Sierra Leone: What Position for Librarians?
Stories are as aged as language, as old as the earliest societies. A handful of of the earliest tales even endure: those instructed in pictorial type on walls of cave in Lascaux, in France or in the Mpongweni Mountains in Lesotho. And other people have appear down to us in the world’s myths and folklore to which we now have obtain on the printed age. Storytelling is older than printing, older than writing, and the very first tales to be established down on paper, papyrus or parchment ended up not the function of these authors but information of the oral traditions of previous hundreds of years. In Sierra Leone as it is in most African nations storytelling is an integral portion of the country’s life despite the fact that oral traditions have very mainly yielded to the prepared term.
We find out as we live although we are young children, younger folks and older people. Learning is not confined to the classroom alone: it can get place wherever. Ethical values and social norms, beliefs and codes have to be transmitted from era to the following, whether or not modified or not. Casual finding out options are pertinent and might be dominant even today when much more formalized and specific establishments have partly taken more than.
Whilst Sierra Leoneans guard themselves in opposition to their past equally educationists and librarians see a lot in storytelling that could be employed as foundation to orient and create the youthful in the college technique. There are a lot of indications that an immense richness of standard pedagogy in respect to the ideas, contents, methods and institutional preparations existed and nonetheless exist in Sierra Leone. Tale tellers, their stories and songs, proverbs and riddles are even now crucial belongings and subjects for indigenous studying and schooling. Oral traditions do not only pass the mores and requirements of a society. They set out to explain the entire world and behaviour of the folks in it. Oral traditions offer accounts of how the globe started and these generation myths are part also of the Holy Publications of all the world’s lengthy-set up religions these kinds of as Christianity and Islam. Also explained in allegorical conditions is all human behaviour in which excellent does not constantly triumph above evil.
Tales which do not count on literature in change do not rely on literacy. They can achieve all of the community and their interactive high quality is by itself electrical power, for it facilitates the capabilities of stories in social instruction, what Leeson (1985) referred to as “passing on the country’s shared wisdom and values to the up coming technology.” Regrettably there is a missing website link in Sierra Leone as school heading young children are effectively acquainted with the tales of Fantastic Britain, the United States of The us, Canada and Italy to cite a handful of illustrations but know extremely minor about their conventional tales.
STORYTELLING IN SIERRA LEONE
Sierra Leone comprises sixteen (16) ethnic groups. The premier of these is the Mende identified in the Southern and Eastern Provinces. Next to them in number is the Temne in the North. The third greatest group is the Limba, also in the Northern Province, adopted by the Kono in the Jap Province. You will find also the Koranko in the North as nicely as the Yalunka, Loko, Soso, Madingo and Fula. On the coastline, North and South are the Bullom and Sherbro followed by the significantly smaller groups of Krim, Vai and Gola, with the Kissi more inland in the Japanese Province. The Western Area, which includes Freetown, is much more combined in population, but is basically the property of the Creole group. In all these ethnic groups storytelling is typical as component of their culture.
Ogutu and Roscoe (1974) experienced this to say about storytelling in Africa: “The continent has its very own fiction traditions it has the custom of storytelling, narrated orally… the medium through which Africa down the generations has bared its soul, taught its men and women and entertained by itself” (pp. 43-44).
Traditional tales in Sierra Leone are perceived as embodiment of the beliefs, customs, rituals and structures of culture that want to be taken care of. Stories run inside of culture to insure conformity to the acknowledged cultural norms of continuity from generation to era via their part in education and the extent to which they mirror lifestyle. Most standard storytellers claim to derive their art by way of goals, spirits, and apprenticeship to expert storytellers other folks declare to obtain the art straight from God although some say they paid to get it. Storytellers possess the following attributes:
• Fluency in the regional language and mastery of a extensive variety of vocabulary for all ranges of audiences
• Creativity and ability to establish rapport with their audiences
• Expertise of their audiences and their needs
• Familiarity with and capacity to refer to their society and atmosphere to enliven their tales and make them attractiveness to their audience
• Great memory of exact retention and narration of a huge corpus of content and
The contents of classic tales can be grouped into:
• Myths-tales tinted with faith, superstition and standard beliefs particularly about the origins of mankind and phenomena
• Legends-stories about historic occasions and unforgettable individuals such as war heroes, excellent medication guys and migration
• Fiction-imaginary tales classified into allegory, fables, fantasy and parables.
These can be more classified by social function or institution particularly:
• Political stories-stories about management and the partnership in between leaders and their topics
• Tribe stories-these reveal the buildings, families and communities i.e. relationship and genealogies
• Faith and deities-tales about development and phenomena such as dying and rain
• Ethical virtues-tales supposed to deride these kinds of vices as satisfaction, greed, thievery, murder, dishonesty, foolishness and lack of insight
• Economics-stories that offer with function, borrowing and lending, industriousness and laziness.
Characters in typical conventional Sierra Leonean tales variety from folks to animals, stones, trees, vegetation, deities, spirits and birds. These people are symbolic: Bra rabbit- trickery tortoise-wisdom elephant-nobility vulture-persistence lion-bravery and power sparrow, parrot and crow-intelligence dove-excellent fortune spider-cunning. Tales are told purely for evening entertainments. Sometimes storytelling sessions could be any time of the working day with audiences in personal verandahs, ‘court barries’ or other community places. Nonetheless, the standard environment exactly where 20 to forty folks sit collectively about a kerosene lamp or fireplace at night time soon after a day’s work is carried out and meals has been cooked and eaten. Storytellers are also invited to cultural social features these kinds of as weddings, burials, secret culture celebrations and crowning ceremonies. قصص اطفال is usually presented for with out cigarette smoking storytelling concepts will not stream.
Stories go together with songs a song commences off a tale an crucial line in a tale makes up a new tale a proverb finishes a tale a track in the middle of a tale is employed to wake up listeners or to put together for the coming climax. Really usually tracks do invite participation, and listeners turn out to be active supporters of a chorus, clapping their fingers, reaching to lies and jokes of the tale teller, who in switch answers the feedback frequently with another tale. Songs are backed by the beating of traditional musical instruments like ‘kaylain’, ‘sira’ ‘seigureh’ and ‘sangba’ (neighborhood drum) to incorporate rhythm. Tale telling audience is generally energetic. It catalyses the narratives by spontaneous exclamations, concerns to the narrator, echoing of the narrator’s voice, and joining in the singing of choruses. For all these to consider spot discipline is managed. The audience is created to laugh and exclaim but without having jeopardizing the continuation of the narration.